Developmental Milestones as Early Indicators of Twice-Exceptionality. 2022. Researchers explored whether parent-reported developmental milestones could predict the number of disabilities diagnosed in an individual (including ADHD, ASD and learning disorders). They found that academic milestones were more predictive than motor milestones of a later diagnosis. They also found that male and lower socio-economic status were the most associated demographic characteristics of later diagnosis. They found that the most predictive of a later diagnosis was the age at which an individual began to count and read and to acquire speech.
Understanding the Academic Success of Academically Talented College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2021. Researchers talk to university students with ASD and find that they benefited from advanced academic content, enriched learning opportunities, ability to focus on their areas of interest and choice in what they were learning. They also benefited from connections within a support system. The researchers argue for inclusion of talent development opportunities especially extracurricular activities as goals for 2e students.
Twice-exceptional students: Review of implications for special and inclusive education. 2021. This literature review finds that the following are needed in order to ensure 2e students are able to access inclusive education: teacher preparation, a continuum of special education interventions, the need for collaboration with parents and specialists, and teachers need to focus on developing strengths as much as mediating difficulties.
Parenting for strengths: Embracing the challenges of raising children identified as twice exceptional. 2021. Authors discuss how parents can find educational opportunities for their 2E children.
Profiles and academic trajectories of cognitively gifted children with autism spectrum disorder. 2019. This secondary data analysis finds that 2e students show higher initial levels of academic performance compared to their peers; they also improve over time relative to their counterparts. They also use mental health services more than their counterparts.
Non-cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities: An In-depth Systematic Review. 2018. This meta-analysis looked at 23 publications related to 2e kiddos. They found that these children had high levels of negative emotions, low self-perception, and adverse interpersonal relationships, alongside high levels of motivation, coping skills and perseverance. These students were also likely to exhibit a high degree of frustration with the academic situation.